food knowledge

When it comes to food knowledge, questions, and theory, there is so much to explore. The study of food has become a science and its history goes all the way back to ancient literature.

Some of the topics I discussed related to food theory, and its questions.

Table of contents


  • Hors d oeuvre – This is the first course of the French classical menu, its reference to the appetizer. Basically, the purpose of this is to enhance your appetite before going to have food. The term “OEUVRE” usually applies to a variety of side dishes offered such as salads and snacks. The salads like are Russian salad, potato salad, anchovies, olive or any pate dishes. It served hot or cold.
  • Potage – This is the second course of the French classical menu. It refers to the soup. Also, this course enhances your appetite and provides a lot of nutrients and vitamins. Mainly two types of soup are usually featured. one is a clear soup like a consomme and the second one is a thick soup like a creamy soup. The soups are made both vegetable and non-vegetable.
  • Poisson – This course consists of shellfish and other side dishes. The fish dish may be dry (grilled, baked, broiled), steam, and poached in water or stock.

Food knowledge

  • Entree – It refers to the first dish of the main course. At dinner usually, it is complete in itself that it is accompanied by its own vegetable and other garnishes, like pasta dishes.
  • Releve – It is the main course of the French classical menu. It consists of roast dishes like the saddle of lamb, braised ham, or venison along with potato, vegetable, and sauce.
  • Sorbet – This course is intended to be paused during a long meal. A sorbet will help “settle” dishes already served and stimulates the appetite. It may be a mocktail, fruit juices, and flavoured water.
  • Roti – Refer to the consists of poultry or game such as a chicken, duck and turkey served with sauce and along with the side salad.
  • Legume – Means vegetable, the French customarily serve a finely dressed vegetable as a separate course like asparagus served with hollandaise sauce and grilled or steamed vegetable.
  • Entrement – Sweet dishes consist of such as pudding. souffle and mousse.
  • Savouries – Savouries usually consist of titbits on hot canapes of toast or fried bread. The cheese platter is the best example of this course.
  • Dessert – This is finale consists of fresh fruits and dry nuts.
  • Cafe – Refers to tea or coffee.

Food knowledge about Mother sauces.


1) There should be no taste of uncooked starch.

2)Smooth texture and velvety.

3)The sauce should never be very thick like a paste.

4)Should be a blend of several subtle flavors.

Types of Mother sauces.


Bechamel sauce.

white sauce with ravioli

It is prepared with milk and roux ( equal quantity of butter and all-purpose flour ) with adding of studded onion ( clove and onion).


1. Mornay sauce….(adding parmesan cheese, butter, and egg yolk)

2. Soubise sauce…..( adding onion and grated nutmeg)

3. Cardinal sauce.…( adding fish stock, truffle essence, lobster butter, and cayenne pepper). 4. Madeira sauce….( adding Madeira wine).

5. Cream sauce…….( Finishing with cream).

Veloute sauce

It’s been a long time since the veloute sauce has been produced. It consists of a mixture of stock, butter, and flour.

The veloute sauce is used mainly in French cuisine, but it can also be found in Italian cooking. The most common ingredient in this dish is the white onion, blond roux, and stock.

DERIVATIVES (food knowledge)

1. Allemande sauce ….( veloute and egg yolk).

2. Nantua sauce….( fish veloute with tomato shrimp butter).

3. Curry sauce….( curry powder, chopped onion)

4. Aurore sauce. (Fish veloute finished with butter).

Espagnole sauce

This sauce is made from roasted beef stock and brown roux. It is one type of rich sauce and also called brown sauce. DERIVATIVE.

1. Robert sauce…(chopped onion, tarragon, and demiglaze)

2. Mushroom sauce…( sliced mushroom, sherry wine, and brown sauce).

3. Demi glaze sauce…( Brown stock, brown sauce, cream, and port wine).

4. Bordelaise sauce…( Chopped shallots, olive oil, black pepper, and bay leaf).

Concasse/tomato sauce.

Tomato sauce food knowledge

Made from Italian tomato and it can be made in many varieties. Every combination will have a slightly different flavor and spices. It has its own characteristics so that direct influences on Italian cuisine.


1. Creole sauce…( adding with diced onion, bell peppers, mushroom, celery, and tomatoes). 2. Neapolitan sauce…( adding with garlic, salt, and tomato ketchup).

3. Arabiata sauce….( chilly flakes, garlic, and crushed black pepper).

4. Primavera sauce..( garlic, olives, chilly flakes).

Hollandaise sauce.


This is most popular among sauces, hollandaise sauce is a rich, and warm sauce. Made from egg yolk and clarified butter seasoning with lemon juice and salt. Mainly used for salads, canapes, and some appetizer-like dishes of fish, eggs, and vegetables.


1. Maltase sauce…(Orange juice, julienne orange and hollandaise sauce).

2. mousseline sauce….(Made with double cream, and hollandaise sauce).

3. Choron sauce…( Made with tomato puree and hollandaise sauce).

4. Mustard sauce…( Mustard and sauce).

Mayonnaise sauce


Made from egg yolk. salad oil, mustard sauce. lemon juice and butter whisk together. It is only one cold sauce often used as a spread and dressing of salads.


1. Tartare sauce…(Chopped gherkin. caper, egg white, and mayonnaise).

2. Thousand island sauce…(Tartare sauce and tomato ketchup).

3. Cocktail sauce….(shallots, tomato ketchup, pepper, capsico sauce).

4. Garlic sauce…( chopped garlic and mayonnaise).